In October 2003, after the above-described discussions had taken place, United Rentals' Ehrlich told lobbyist Boulanger that he had tickets to the first game of the 2003 World Series, and he asked "if there were any government officials that [United Rentals] would be interested in taking that could be helpful" in advancing its legislative agenda. App. 188 (Boulanger Test.). Ehrlich and Boulanger, in conjunction with Hirni, decided to invite Blackann and Verrusio. According to Boulanger, they decided to invite them because "they were in positions to be helpful . . . [s]pecifically" with "[t]he United Rentals' amendments that we were seeking to include in the highway bill." Supp. App. 19-20 (Boulanger Test.). Boulanger knew that Verrusio "was close to the chairman" of the House Transportation Committee, and he hoped "to influence" Verrusio "to do some things for our clients." App. 188 (Boulanger Test.); Supp. App. 21 (same). At trial, Hirni similarly admitted that he had used the "tickets in [an] attempt to influence the Congressional staff for legislation." Supp. App. 85.As planned, Hirni invited Blackann and Verrusio to the World Series game and made clear that United Rentals would cover the costs. App. 251-52 (Hirni Test.). Both men accepted the invitation. Id. at 250-51. Hirni and Blackann flew to New York together and met Ehrlich there. Over drinks, Blackann described the airmail strategy that he, Verrusio, and the two lobbyists had agreed was "the best course of action." Supp. App. 26 (Blackann Test.). Shortly thereafter, Verrusio joined them for dinner. According to Hirni, the four men "talked a lot about United Rentals" and "got into a conversation about concepts and ideas United Rentals had for federal legislation." 6 Id. at 64 (Hirni Test.). Verrusio was "the senior guy at the table," Blackann testified, and was "leading the conversation." Id. at 27. Verrusio "walked them through" the airmail strategy, indicating that it had "the best chance for ultimate success." Id. Ehrlich paid for the dinner and drinks. Id. at 65-66 (Hirni Test.).On the way to Yankee Stadium, the chauffeured car carrying the four men stopped at a convenience store, where Hirni bought several small bottles of liquor for the group. The men then went on to the game. On their way out of the stadium, Verrusio signaled to Hirni that he and Blackann wanted souvenir jerseys. Hirni paid for them with his corporate credit card. Id. at 27, 29 (Blackann Test.); id. at 70 (Hirni Test.).After leaving the stadium, the group went to a strip club called Privilege. Hirni paid the cover charge and the cost of drinks, while Ehrlich paid for several lap dances. Hirni also bought Verrusio and Blackann t-shirts from the club. When the group left, they stopped for pizza before returning to their hotel. The next morning, Hirni paid the hotel expenses, and Verrusio, Blackann, and Hirni took a car to the airport and flew to Washington, D.C. Id. at 71-74, 76-77 (Hirni Test.); see App. 225 (stipulated facts).At trial, the parties stipulated to the value of what Verrusio received during the New York trip: The round-trip plane ticket cost $228.50; his hotel and room service costs were $301.27; the face value of the World Series ticket was $110; the World Series jersey cost $130; and Verrusio's pro rata share of the costs for other transportation, dinner, drinks, and the strip club was $490. The total cost of Verrusio's trip, paid by United Rentals, was $1,259.77. See App. 225; Verrusio Br. 53-54.Three days after the trip, Hirni forwarded Verrusio an email from Boulanger that "listed a series of legislative items and 7 some legislative text that United Rentals was now pushing," and asked whether Verrusio had time to discuss it. Supp. App. 79- 80 (Hirni Test.). Verrusio responded that the language "needs a lot more work for anyone to be able to help with progress." App. 262-63 (Hirni Test.).