The following quotes are extracts from the Opinion:The Securities Act of 1933 requires that a company wishing to issue securities must first file a registration statement containing specified information about the issuing company and the securities offered. See 15 U. S. C. §§77g, 77aa. The registration statement may also include other representations of fact or opinion. To protect investors and promote compliance with these disclosure requirements, §11 of the Act creates two ways to hold issuers liable for a registration statement's contents: A purchaser of securities may sue an issuer if the registration statement either "contain[s] an untrue statement of a material fact" or "omit[s] to state a material fact . . . necessary to make the statements therein not misleading." §77k(a). In either case, the buyer need not prove that the issuer acted with any intent to deceive or defraud. Herman & MacLean v. Huddleston, 459 U. S. 375, 381-382.Petitioner Omnicare, a pharmacy services company, filed a registration statement in connection with a public offering of common stock. In addition to the required disclosures, the registration statement contained two statements expressing the company's opinion that it was in compliance with federal and state laws. After the Federal Government filed suit against Omnicare for allegedly receiving kickbacks from pharmaceutical manufacturers, respondents, pension funds that purchased Omnicare stock (hereinafter Funds), sued Omnicare under §11. They claimed that Omnicare's legal-compliance statements constituted "untrue statement[s] of . . . material fact" and that Omnicare "omitted to state [material] facts necessary" to make those statements not misleading.The District Court granted Omnicare's motion to dismiss. Because the Funds had not alleged that Omnicare's officers knew they were violating the law, the court found that the Funds had failed to state a §11 claim. The Sixth Circuit reversed. acknowledging that the statements at issue expressed opinions, the court held that no showing of subjective disbelief was required. In the court's view, the Funds' allegations that Omnicare's legal-compliance opinions were objectively false sufficed to support their claim.Held:1. A statement of opinion does not constitute an "untrue statement of . . . fact" simply because the stated opinion ultimately proves incorrect. The Sixth Circuit's contrary holding wrongly conflates facts and opinions. A statement of fact expresses certainty about a thing, whereas a statement of opinion conveys only an uncertain view as to that thing. Section 11 incorporates that distinction in its first clause by exposing issuers to liability only for "untrue statement[s] of . . . fact." §77k(a) (emphasis added). Because a statement of opinion admits the possibility of error, such a statement remains true-and thus is not an "untrue statement of . . . fact"-even if the opinion turns out to have been wrong.But opinion statements are not wholly immune from liability under §11's first clause. Every such statement explicitly affirms one fact: that the speaker actually holds the stated belief. A statement of opinion thus qualifies as an "untrue statement of . . . fact" if that fact is untrue-i.e., if the opinion expressed was not sincerely held. In addition, opinion statements can give rise to false-statement liability under §11 if they contain embedded statements of untrue facts. Here, however, Omnicare's sincerity is not contested and the statements at issue are pure opinion statements. The Funds thus cannot establish liability under §11's first clause. Pp. 6-10.2. If a registration statement omits material facts about the issuer's inquiry into, or knowledge concerning, a statement of opinion, and if those facts conflict with what a reasonable investor, reading the statement fairly and in context, would take from the statement itself, then §11's omissions clause creates liability. Pp. 10-20.(a) For purposes of §11's omissions clause, whether a statement is "misleading" is an objective inquiry that depends on a reasonable investor's perspective. Cf. TSC Industries, Inc. v. Northway, Inc., 426 U. S. 438, 445. Omnicare goes too far by claiming that no reasonable person, in any context, can understand a statement of opinion to convey anything more than the speaker's own mindset. A reasonable investor may, depending on the circumstances, understand an opinion statement to convey facts about the speaker's basis for holding that view. Specifically, an issuer's statement of opinion may fairly imply facts about the inquiry the issuer conducted or the knowledge it had. And if the real facts are otherwise, but not provided, the opinion statement will mislead by omission.An opinion statement, however, is not misleading simply because the issuer knows, but fails to disclose, some fact cutting the other way. A reasonable investor does not expect that every fact known to an issuer supports its opinion statement. Moreover, whether an omission makes an expression of opinion misleading always depends on context. Reasonable investors understand opinion statements in light of the surrounding text, and §11 creates liability only for the omission of material facts that cannot be squared with a fair reading of the registration statement as a whole. Omnicare's arguments to the contrary are unavailing. Pp. 10-19.(b) Because neither court below considered the Funds' omissions theory under the right standard, this case is remanded for a determination of whether the Funds have stated a viable omissions claim. On remand, the court must review the Funds' complaint to determine whether it adequately alleges that Omnicare omitted from the registration statement some specific fact that would have been material to a reasonable investor. If so, the court must decide whether the alleged omission rendered Omnicare's opinion statements misleading in context. Pp. 19-20.719 F. 3d 498, vacated and remanded.
Section 11 of the Act promotes compliance with these disclosure provisions by giving purchasers a right of action against an issuer or designated individuals (directors,partners, underwriters, and so forth) for material misstatements or omissions in registration statements. As relevant here, that section provides:
"In case any part of the registration statement, when such part became effective, contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, any person acquiring such security . . . [may] sue." §77k(a).
Section 11 thus creates two ways to hold issuers liable for the contents of a registration statement-one focusing on what the statement says and the other on what it leaves out. Either way, the buyer need not prove (as he must to establish certain other securities offenses) that the defendant acted with any intent to deceive or defraud. Herman & MacLean v. Huddleston, 459 U. S. 375, 381- 382 (1983),This case arises out of a registration statement that petitioner Omnicare filed in connection with a public offering of common stock. Omnicare is the nation's largest provider of pharmacy services for residents of nursing homes. Its registration statement contained (along with all mandated disclosures) analysis of the effects of various federal and state laws on its business model, including its acceptance of rebates from pharmaceutical manufacturers. See, e.g., App. 88-107, 132-140, 154-166. Of significance here, two sentences in the registration statement expressed Omnicare's view of its compliance with legal requirements:
Accompanying those legal opinions were some caveats. On the same page as the first statement above, Omnicare mentioned several state-initiated "enforcement actions against pharmaceutical manufacturers" for offering payments to pharmacies that dispensed their products; it then cautioned that the laws relating to that practice might "be interpreted in the future in a manner inconsistent with our interpretation and application." Id., at 96. And adjacent to the second statement, Omnicare noted that the Federal Government had expressed "significant concerns" about some manufacturers' rebates to pharmacies and warned that business might suffer "if these price concessions were no longer provided." Id., at 136-137
- "We believe our contract arrangements with other healthcare providers, our pharmaceutical suppliers and our pharmacy practices are in compliance with applicable federal and state laws." Id., at 95.
- "We believe that our contracts with pharmaceutical manufacturers are legally and economically valid arrangements that bring value to the healthcare system and the patients that we serve." Id., at 137.
The Sixth Circuit held, and the Funds now urge, that a statement of opinion that is ultimately found incorrect- even if believed at the time made-may count as an "untrue statement of a material fact." 15 U. S. C §77k(a); see 719 F. 3d, at 505; Brief for Respondents 20-26. As the Funds put the point, a statement of belief may make an implicit assertion about the belief 's "subject matter": To say "we believe X is true" is often to indicate that "X is in fact true." Id., at 23; see Tr. of Oral Arg. 36. In just that way, the Funds conclude, an issuer's statement that "we believe we are following the law" conveys that "we in fact are following the law"-which is "materially false," no matter what the issuer thinks, if instead it is violating an anti-kickback statute. Brief for Respondents 1.
An opinion statement, however, is not necessarily misleading when an issuer knows, but fails to disclose, some fact cutting the other way. Reasonable investors understand that opinions sometimes rest on a weighing of competing facts; indeed, the presence of such facts is one reason why an issuer may frame a statement as an opinion, thus conveying uncertainty. See supra, at 6-7, 11. Suppose, for example, that in stating an opinion about legal compliance, the issuer did not disclose that a single junior attorney expressed doubts about a practice's legality, when six of his more senior colleagues gave a stamp of approval. That omission would not make the statement of opinion misleading, even if the minority position ultimately proved correct: A reasonable investor does not expect that every fact known to an issuer supports its opinion statement.8
Moreover, whether an omission makes an expression of opinion misleading always depends on context. Registration statements as a class are formal documents, filed with the SEC as a legal prerequisite for selling securities to the public. Investors do not, and are right not to, expect opinions contained in those statements to reflect baseless, offthe-cuff judgments, of the kind that an individual might communicate in daily life. At the same time, an investor reads each statement within such a document, whether of fact or of opinion, in light of all its surrounding text, including hedges, disclaimers, and apparently conflicting information. And the investor takes into account the customs and practices of the relevant industry. So an omission that renders misleading a statement of opinion when viewed in a vacuum may not do so once that statement is considered, as is appropriate, in a broader frame. The reasonable investor understands a statement of opinion in its full context, and §11 creates liability only for the omission of material facts that cannot be squared with such a fair reading
Page 20 of the OpinionAssuming the Funds clear those hurdles, the court must ask whether the alleged omission rendered Omnicare's legal compliance opinions misleading in the way described earlier-i.e., because the excluded fact shows that Omnicare lacked the basis for making those statements that a reasonable investor would expect. See supra, at 11-12. Insofar as the omitted fact at issue is the attorney's warning, that inquiry entails consideration of such matters as the attorney's status and expertise and other legal information available to Omnicare at the time. See supra, at 13. Further, the analysis of whether Omnicare's opinion is misleading must address the statement's context. See supra, at 14. That means the court must take account of whatever facts Omnicare did provide about legal compliance, as well as any other hedges, disclaimers, or qualifications it included in its registration statement. The court should consider, for example, the information Omnicare offered that States had initiated enforcement actions against drug manufacturers for giving rebates to pharmacies, that the Federal Government had expressed concerns about the practice, and that the relevant laws "could "be interpreted in the future in a manner" that would harm Omnicare's business. See App. 95-96, 136-137; supra, at 3.